Evaluating Multi-Sensor Fire Detectors in the Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator.
Evaluating Multi-Sensor Fire Detectors in the Fire
Cleary, T. G.; Anderson, M.; Averill, J. D.;
Grosshandler, W. L.
Interscience Communications Ltd.; National Institute of
Standards and Technology; Building Research
Establishment; and Society of Fire Protection Engineers;
Swedish National Testing and Research Institute.
Interflam 1999. (Interflam '99). International
Interflam Conference, 8th Proceedings. Volume 1. June
29-July 1, 1999, Edinburgh, Scotland, Interscience
Communications Ltd., London, England, 453-464 pp, 1999.
fire science; fire safety; fire detectors; sensors; test
fires; scenarios; steady state; velocity distribution;
temperature profiles; detector response
NIST has developed the Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator
(FE/DE) for the purpose of testing detectors in a
controlled environment. The FE/DE is a flow tunnel where
fire or nuisance source characteristics can be
controlled so that a detector placed in the FE/DE is
exposed to the same stimuli it could experience in its
end-use location. Multi-sensor detectors with three
distinct sensing elements (photo-electric light
scattering, ionization, and thermal) were tested in the
FE/DE. The exposure scenario implemented in the FE/DE
was based on the TF 4 scenario in EN 54 Part 9. Large
Eddy Simulation modeling was used to obtain velocity and
temperature profiles at the detector location in the EN
54 test room. Literature values of smoke obscuration
were used. The smoke injected into the tunnel was not
quite sufficient to achieve the peak obscuration values
measured in full-scale TF 4 tests. The emulated
scenario was repeatable as indicated by a narrow spread
in detector alarm values, smoke obscuration and
temperature profiles for replicated tests.