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Three Dimensional Modeling of Intumescent Behavior in Fires.

pdf icon Three Dimensional Modeling of Intumescent Behavior in Fires. (858 K)
Butler, K. M.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.

International Association for Fire Safety Science. Fire Safety Science. Proceedings. Fifth (5th) International Symposium. March 3-7, 1997, Melbourne, Australia, Intl. Assoc. for Fire Safety Science, Boston, MA, Hasemi, Y., Editor(s), 523-534 pp, 1997.


fire research; fire safety; fire science; fire behavior; intumescence; fire retardants; thermoplastics; mathematical models; numberical analysis; flame retardants; intumescent coatings; heat transfer; numerical models


A method of studying the swelling and thermal behavior of intumescent materials using understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes is described. The material is treated as a highly viscous fluid with properties dependent on temperature. the growth rate, migration, and thermal effects of a large number of bubbles are individually calculated using approximate analytical solutions to mass, momentum, and energy equations, and the collective behavior is obtained as a summation of the individual velocity and temperature fields. The approach and implementation of this model are described and demonstrted.