Three Dimensional Modeling of Intumescent Behavior in Fires.
Three Dimensional Modeling of Intumescent Behavior in
Butler, K. M.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.
International Association for Fire Safety Science. Fire
Safety Science. Proceedings. Fifth (5th) International
Symposium. March 3-7, 1997, Melbourne, Australia, Intl.
Assoc. for Fire Safety Science, Boston, MA, Hasemi, Y.,
Editor(s), 523-534 pp, 1997.
fire research; fire safety; fire science; fire behavior;
intumescence; fire retardants; thermoplastics;
mathematical models; numberical analysis; flame
retardants; intumescent coatings; heat transfer;
A method of studying the swelling and thermal behavior
of intumescent materials using understanding of the
basic physical and chemical processes is described. The
material is treated as a highly viscous fluid with
properties dependent on temperature. the growth rate,
migration, and thermal effects of a large number of
bubbles are individually calculated using approximate
analytical solutions to mass, momentum, and energy
equations, and the collective behavior is obtained as a
summation of the individual velocity and temperature
fields. The approach and implementation of this model
are described and demonstrted.