Enhancement of EXIT89 and Analysis of World Trade Center Data. Final Report. August 1994-August 1995.
Enhancement of EXIT89 and Analysis of World Trade Center
Data. Final Report. August 1994-August 1995.
Fahy, R. F.
NIST GCR 95-684; 45 p. June 1996.
Sponsor:National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Available from: National Technical Information Service
(NTIS), Technology Administration, U.S. Department of
Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
1-800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000;
Fax: 703-605-6900; Rush
Service (Telephone Orders Only) 800-553-6847;
Order number: PB96-202247
computer simulation; egress; field tests; fire models;
human behavior; training; occupants; terrorists;
terrorism; World Trade Center
The features of an enhanced model for egress from fires
in non-residential occupancies is presented along with a
users manual describing the use of the model. The
enhancements to the model include analysis of locations
of safety, smoke blockages, disabled occupants, and
delays in egress. Comparisons with some available field
measurements is presented. Further analysis of human
behavior during a fire in the World Trade Center is
presented. The analysis shows that there was a
signficiant difference in perception of the severity of
the fire between the two buildings of the World Trade
Center. While previous human behavior studies have
shown that people will move through smoke, this incident
demonstrated that people will not only move through
smoke, but also through worsening conditions.
Implications for evacuation and training are discussed.