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Smoke Control.


pdf icon Smoke Control. (1304 K)
Klote, J. H.

NFPA SFPE 95; LC Card Number 95-68247;

SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. 2nd Edition. Section 4. Chapter 12, National Fire Protection Assoc., Quincy, MA, DiNenno, P. J.; Beyler, C. L.; Custer, R. L. P.; Walton, W. D., Editor(s), 4/230-245 p., 1995.

Keywords:

fire protection; fire protection engineering; smoke control; smoke movement; heating; ventilation; air conditioning; stairwells; elevators (lifts); acceptability; stack effect; buoyancy; expansion; wind effects; air flow; pressurization; piston effect; elevator shafts

Abstract:

In building fire situations, smoke often flows to locations remote from the fire, threatening life and damaging property. Stairwells and elevators frequently become smoke-logged, thereby blocking and/or an inhibiting evacuation. Today smoke is recognized as the major killer in fire situations. In the late 1960s, the idea of using pressurization to prevent smoke infiltration of stairwells started to attract attention. This was followed by the idea of the "pressure sandwich," i.e., venting or exhausting the fire floor and pressurizing the surrounding floors. Frequently, the building's ventilation system is used for this purpose. The term "smoke control" was coined as a name for such systems that use pressurization produced by mechanical fans to limit smoke movement in fire situations. Research in the field of smoke control has been conducted in Australia, Canada, England, France, Japan, the United States, and West Germany. This research has consisted of field tests, full-scale fire tests, and computer simulations. Many buildings have been built with smoke control systems and numerous others have been retrofitted for smoke control. In this chapter the term smoke is defined in accordance with the Americal Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) definitions which state that smoke consists of the airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis of combustion.