Turbulent Upward Flame Spread on a Vertical Wall Under External Radiation. Annual Report. September 30, 1991-January 15, 1993.
Turbulent Upward Flame Spread on a Vertical Wall Under
External Radiation. Annual Report. September 30,
1991-January 15, 1993.
Kulkarni, A. K.; Brehob, E. G.; Manohar, S.; Nair, R.
NIST GCR 94-638; 90 p. June 1994.
Sponsor:National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Available from: National Technical Information Service
(NTIS), Technology Administration, U.S. Department of
Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
1-800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000;
Order number: PB94-207388
building fires; fire research; flame spread; linings;
mathematical models; transportation; wall coverings;
Progress made on NIST grant number 60NANB8D0849 for the
period September 30, 1991 to January 15, 1993 is
reported. The overall objective is to understand the
upward flame spread phenomenon under simulated
surrounding fire conditions by establishing a data base
for upward flame spread under external radiation,
developing a mathematical model, measuring the relevant
basic material properties needed, and checking the
validity of the model by comparing its results with
data. Emphasis is placed on studying and predicting the
behavior of practical wall materials used in building
and vehicle interiors, and textiles. In the past year,
we measured flame spread on several different materials
under a range of external radiant fluxes of up to 15
kW/m2. A model for describing the upward flame spread
process was developed and numerical results were
compared with data. The model needed input of certain
properties, such as the burning rate characteristics and
surface radiation properties. A series of supporting
studies were undertaken which provided the needed input
properties to the model and other useful material
property data. These studies included transient mass
loss rate experiments, in-depth radiation absorption
analysis and experiments, and reflectance measurements
using a specially designed heated cavity reflectometer.
Experimental data, appropriately validated model, and
radiative properties of materials obtained here should
be very useful in fire hazard codes for single or
multiple enclosures, as well as for assessing material
flammability in a relevant orientation.