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Turbulent Upward Flame Spread on a Vertical Wall Under External Radiation. Annual Report. September 30, 1991-January 15, 1993.


pdf icon Turbulent Upward Flame Spread on a Vertical Wall Under External Radiation. Annual Report. September 30, 1991-January 15, 1993. (2907 K)
Kulkarni, A. K.; Brehob, E. G.; Manohar, S.; Nair, R.

NIST GCR 94-638; 90 p. June 1994.

Sponsor:

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Available from:

National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
Telephone: 1-800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000;
Fax: 703-605-6900.
Website: http://www.ntis.gov
Order number: PB94-207388

Keywords:

building fires; fire research; flame spread; linings; mathematical models; transportation; wall coverings; walls

Abstract:

Progress made on NIST grant number 60NANB8D0849 for the period September 30, 1991 to January 15, 1993 is reported. The overall objective is to understand the upward flame spread phenomenon under simulated surrounding fire conditions by establishing a data base for upward flame spread under external radiation, developing a mathematical model, measuring the relevant basic material properties needed, and checking the validity of the model by comparing its results with data. Emphasis is placed on studying and predicting the behavior of practical wall materials used in building and vehicle interiors, and textiles. In the past year, we measured flame spread on several different materials under a range of external radiant fluxes of up to 15 kW/m2. A model for describing the upward flame spread process was developed and numerical results were compared with data. The model needed input of certain properties, such as the burning rate characteristics and surface radiation properties. A series of supporting studies were undertaken which provided the needed input properties to the model and other useful material property data. These studies included transient mass loss rate experiments, in-depth radiation absorption analysis and experiments, and reflectance measurements using a specially designed heated cavity reflectometer. Experimental data, appropriately validated model, and radiative properties of materials obtained here should be very useful in fire hazard codes for single or multiple enclosures, as well as for assessing material flammability in a relevant orientation.