Three-Dimensional Kinetic Model for the Swelling of Intumescent Materials.
Three-Dimensional Kinetic Model for the Swelling of
Butler, K. M.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.
NISTIR 5499; September 1994.
National Institute of Standards and Technology. Annual
Conference on Fire Research: Book of Abstracts.
October 17-20, 1994, Gaithersburg, MD, 109-110 pp, 1994.
Available from: National Technical Information Service
Order number: PB95-104964
fire research; intumescent coatings; kinetics; swelling;
heat transfer; gasification; fire models
An intumescent coating protects the underlying surface
from fire by swelling into a thick insulating char.
Design of intumescent materials has proceeded largely by
systematic testing of a variety of formulations, since
the mechanisms of physical, thermal and chemical
behavior are not as yet well understood. Previous
models of intumescent behavior have treated the system
as a one-dimensional heat transfer problem through a
coating consisting of a char layer and a layer of virgin
material separated by a thin pyrolysis zone. In this
work, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent
numerical model combining the dynamics of the swelling
process, the heat transfer through the coating, and the
chemistry of gasification is described.