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Three-Dimensional Kinetic Model for the Swelling of Intumescent Materials.

pdf icon Three-Dimensional Kinetic Model for the Swelling of Intumescent Materials. (167 K)
Butler, K. M.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.

NISTIR 5499; September 1994.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. Annual Conference on Fire Research: Book of Abstracts. October 17-20, 1994, Gaithersburg, MD, 109-110 pp, 1994.

Available from:

National Technical Information Service
Order number: PB95-104964


fire research; intumescent coatings; kinetics; swelling; heat transfer; gasification; fire models


An intumescent coating protects the underlying surface from fire by swelling into a thick insulating char. Design of intumescent materials has proceeded largely by systematic testing of a variety of formulations, since the mechanisms of physical, thermal and chemical behavior are not as yet well understood. Previous models of intumescent behavior have treated the system as a one-dimensional heat transfer problem through a coating consisting of a char layer and a layer of virgin material separated by a thin pyrolysis zone. In this work, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical model combining the dynamics of the swelling process, the heat transfer through the coating, and the chemistry of gasification is described.