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Structure and Radiation Properties of Pool Fires. Final Report.

pdf icon Structure and Radiation Properties of Pool Fires. Final Report. (5225 K)
Klassen, M. E.; Gore, J. P.

NIST GCR 94-651; 153 p. June 1994.


National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Available from:

National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
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pool fires; burning rate; flame height; heat loss; heat transfer; measurement; radiation; soot; temperature distribution


An experimental and theoretical study of radiative feedback, burning rates, radiative heat loss fractions, and flame heights for pool fires with diameters ranging from 4.6 cm to 100 cm was completed. Transient measurements of soot and temperature distributions were obtained in 7.1 cm and 30 cm heptane and toluene fires using a three-wavelength emission/absorption probe. The heat release rates of the fires varied from 0.6 kW to 2166 kW allowing a study over a wide range. A variety of fuels were tried but most of the measurements were restricted to methanol, heptane, and toluene as representatives of the alcohols, paraffins and aromatics. Radiative feedback was measured using a new in situ purged optical probe inserted at the level of the fuel surface. Measurements of reflection of energy from the fuel surface were also obtained. A multi-ray radiation calculation procedure utilizing simultaneous single-point measurements of soot volume fractions and temperatures was used to estimate the heat transfer to the surroundings and that to the fuel surface. Importance of turbulent fluctuations of different frequencies on the radiation heat flux was studied using filtered simulations.