EXIT89: An Evacuation Model for High-Rise Buildings. Model Description and Example Applications.
EXIT89: An Evacuation Model for High-Rise Buildings.
Model Description and Example Applications.
Fahy, R. F.
International Association for Fire Safety Science. Fire
Safety Science. Proceedings. 4th International
Symposium. July 13-17, 1994, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,
Intl. Assoc. for Fire Safety Science, Boston, MA,
Kashiwagi, T., Editor(s), 657-668 pp, 1994.
fire research; fire safety; fire science; evacuation;
high rise buildings; egress; occupants
EXIT89 is an evacuation model designed to handle the
evacuation of a large population of individuals from a
high-rise building. It has the ability to track the
location of individuals as they more through the
building so that the output from this model can be used
as input to a toxicity model that will accumulate
occupant exposures to combustion products. The model
has been enhanced to allow the user to specify whether
the occupants of the building will follow the shortest
exit paths or their familiar route from the building, as
well as to allow evacuation delays to be set by the user
by locations and additional delays to be distributed
randomly among the occupants. It allows smoke input to
be read in from a smoke movement model or from
user-defined blockages. EXIT89 models queuing effects
by using occupant densities in building spaces to
compute each occupant's walking speed. One proposed
future use for EXIT89 is as the evacuation module of
Hazard I, allowing that software package to extend its
use to larger, more complex buildings. The model
described in this paper was designed to use the smoke
movement data generated by one component of Hazard I and
to provide the occupant location data required by the
tenability model incorporated in Hazard I. The program
has been tested using data from evacuation drills in
several buildings. Examples of the applications are
presented in this paper. The model is written in