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Modeling the Ignition of Soft Furnishings by a Cigarette. Volume 3.


pdf icon Modeling the Ignition of Soft Furnishings by a Cigarette. Volume 3. (10178 K)
Mitler, H. E.; Walton, G. N.

NIST SP 852; Volume 3; 169 p. August 1993.

Available from:

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207
Order number: PB94-109014

Keywords:

cigarettes; ignition; furniture; computer models; mathematical models; pyrolysis; simulation; smoldering; substrates; oxygen concentration

Abstract:

This paper describes the user-friendly computer models CIGARET and SUBSTRAT. CIGARET calculates the time-dependent behavior of a cigarette smoldering quietly in the air, away from surfaces. The model incorporates diffusion and convection of gases, as well as the kinetics of char oxidation. It calculates the internal heat fluxes, as well as the internal distributions of temperature, gas velocity, and oxygen concentration. SUBSTRAT determines whether a two-layer solid (with an air gap in between), exposed to a moving heating flux such as is produced by a cigarette, will ignite. Among the processes taken into consideration are three-dimensional heat conduction in the substrate and its pyrolysis. This model has successfully simulated the thermal runaway signifying smoldering ignition of the substrate when it is exposed to a set of external heating fluxes. SUBSTRAT and CIGARET have been designed to work in tandem to simulate the most frequent cause of fatal fires: cigarette ignition of upholstered furniture and bedding. Users' guides are included. [*] This is one of six volumes in the Final Report, Fire Safe Cigarette Act of 1990. VOLUME 1. Overview: Practicability of Developing a Performance Standard to Reduce Cigarette Ignition Propensity by Jones-Smith, J., et al. VOLUME 2. Test Methods for Quantifying the Propensity of Cigarettes to Ignite Soft Furnishings by Ohlemiller, T. J. VOLUME 4. Cigarette Fire Incident Study by Harwood, B., et al. VOLUME 5. Toxicity Testing Plan by Lee, B. C., et al. VOLUME 6. Societal Costs of Cigarette Fires by Ray, D. R., et al.