Modeling the Ignition of Soft Furnishings by a Cigarette. Volume 3.
Modeling the Ignition of Soft Furnishings by a
Cigarette. Volume 3.
Mitler, H. E.; Walton, G. N.
NIST SP 852; Volume 3; 169 p. August 1993.
Available from: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,
Washington, DC 20207
Order number: PB94-109014
cigarettes; ignition; furniture; computer models;
mathematical models; pyrolysis; simulation; smoldering;
substrates; oxygen concentration
This paper describes the user-friendly computer models
CIGARET and SUBSTRAT. CIGARET calculates the
time-dependent behavior of a cigarette smoldering
quietly in the air, away from surfaces. The model
incorporates diffusion and convection of gases, as well
as the kinetics of char oxidation. It calculates the
internal heat fluxes, as well as the internal
distributions of temperature, gas velocity, and oxygen
concentration. SUBSTRAT determines whether a two-layer
solid (with an air gap in between), exposed to a moving
heating flux such as is produced by a cigarette, will
ignite. Among the processes taken into consideration
are three-dimensional heat conduction in the substrate
and its pyrolysis. This model has successfully
simulated the thermal runaway signifying smoldering
ignition of the substrate when it is exposed to a set of
external heating fluxes. SUBSTRAT and CIGARET have been
designed to work in tandem to simulate the most frequent
cause of fatal fires: cigarette ignition of upholstered
furniture and bedding. Users' guides are included. [*]
This is one of six volumes in the Final Report, Fire
Safe Cigarette Act of 1990.
VOLUME 1. Overview: Practicability of Developing a
Performance Standard to Reduce Cigarette Ignition
Propensity by Jones-Smith, J., et al. VOLUME 2. Test
Methods for Quantifying the Propensity of Cigarettes to
Ignite Soft Furnishings by Ohlemiller, T. J. VOLUME 4.
Cigarette Fire Incident Study by Harwood, B., et al.
VOLUME 5. Toxicity Testing Plan by Lee, B. C., et al.
VOLUME 6. Societal Costs of Cigarette Fires by Ray, D.
R., et al.