NIST Time|NIST Home|About NIST|Contact NIST

HomeAll Years:AuthorKeywordTitle2005-2010:AuthorKeywordTitle

Toxicity, Fire Hazard and Upholstered Furniture.

pdf icon Toxicity, Fire Hazard and Upholstered Furniture. (453 K)
Babrauskas, V.

Interscience Communications Ltd. European Conference on Furniture Flammability (EUCOFF'92), 3rd. November 1992, Brussels, Interscience Communications Ltd., London, England, 125-133 pp, 1992.


upholstered furniture; toxicity; fire hazard; combustion products; hazard analysis; heat release rate


Fire fatalities associated with upholstered furniture fires commonly involve the toxic effects of fire gases. Extensive results, however, both from experiments and from modeling, are presented in this paper that demonstrate that occupant life safety can only by ensured by assuring that furniture fires do not reach a high heat release rate. Differences among commercial products associated with toxicity effects are not significant. A very remote possibility exists that someone could produce furniture having combustion products' toxicity significantly greater than exists in the present marketplace. A combustion toxicity test does exist which would allow the accurate screening out of such products. Any usable combustion toxicity test method requires the use of test animals; no non-animal-based test is possible which can successfully identify products of unusual or extreme toxicity.