Fire Experiments of Zoned Smoke Control at the Plaza Hotel in Washington, DC.
Fire Experiments of Zoned Smoke Control at the Plaza
Hotel in Washington, DC.
Klote, J. H.
NISTIR 90-4253; 75 p. April 1990.
Sponsor:American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineering, Inc., Atlanta, GA
Bell Atlantic Telephone Co., Arlington, VA
New Jersey Bell Telephone Co., Newark, NJ
U.S. Fire Administration, Emmitsburg, MD
Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC
West Inco., Denver, CO
Order number: PB90-207259
smoke control; hotels; sprinklers; fire tests; smoke
transport; stack effects; stairwells
A series of full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate
the current approach to zoned smoke control systems with
and without stairwell pressurization. Smoke movement
and the performance of smoke control systems were
studied with smoke generated from unsprinklered wood
fires, sprinklered wood fires, and smoke bombs. As
expected, the zoned smoke control system prevented smoke
migration beyond the fire floor. The minimum pressure
difference approach to achieve smoke control for zoned
smoke control systems was evaluated. This minimum
pressure difference approach is based on a tacit
assumption of a constant mass flow rate into the zone
where the fire is located. To evaluate this assumption,
a model was developed for mass flow in the smoke zone.
Agreement between experimental results and calculations
based on the model was good. Concerns about expansion
of combustion gases and fan temperatures were
identified. Approaches to deal with these problems were
developed. The experiments showed that chemical smoke
from smoke bombs is very different from hot smoke from
flaming fires. With few exceptions, smoke bombs should
not be used for acceptance tests. Additional research
is needed concerning smoke generation of sprinklered
fires and concerning the interaction of fires and smoke