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Flame Size, Heat Release and Smoke Points in Materials Flammability


pdf icon Flame Size, Heat Release and Smoke Points in Materials Flammability (311 K)
Linteris, G. T.; Rafferty, I. P.

Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 43, No. 6, 442-450, August 2008.

Keywords:

material flammability; flame size; heat release rate; smoke point; cone calorimeters; methane; propane; ethylene; propylene; experiments; laminar flames; flame height; polymers

Abstract:

The concept of using the flame size as a surrogate for heat release rate (HRR) has been explored. A technique for simultaneously obtaining the HRR, flame size (height and area), and the smoke point of the flame solely from visual images has been developed. The technique has been demonstrated on gaseous flames (methane, propane, ethylene, and propylene) and explored for five burning solid polymers. Estimations of the flame area from images of the stoichiometric contour based on the CH chemiluminescent region of the flames yielded a good linear correlation with measured HRR, valid for all of the gaseous and solid compounds tested, for burning rates above or below the smoke point. In contrast, flame heights and luminous images (i.e., from soot emission) were confounded by differing behavior above and below the smoke point.