Fatal Training Fires: Fire Analysis for the Fire Service.
Fatal Training Fires: Fire Analysis for the Fire
Interflam 2007. (Interflam '07). International
Interflam Conference, 11th Proceedings. September 3-5,
2007, London, England, 1169-1180 pp, 2007.
fire fighting training; training; fire fighters; fire
departments; case histories; death; experiments; scale
fires; fuel load; structures; ventilation; heat
transfer; fire behavior; NFPA 1403; thermoouples;
instrumentation; flashover; measuring instruments;
temperature; heat release rate; protective clothing;
pallets; fire load; self contained breathing apparatus
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) has investigated the fire conditions of two very
different fire training incidents that resulted in the
loss of life. One incident occurred in an acquired
structure and the other occurred in a concrete training
tower. In both cases, NIST conducted real scale fire
experiments to gain insight into the thermal conditions
that may have existed during the incidents. The results
of the experiments will be presented and discussed so
that future incidents of this type can be avoided. This
is one of many studies by NIST to assist the fire
service in the practical understanding of fire dynamics.
This paper will provide a summary of each incident and
a discussion of how the incidents were simulated with
real scale fire experiments. Ineach incident, it
appeared that extremely high heat conditions had
occurred. The experiments examine the impact of fuel
load, and the impact of the structure in terms of
ventilation and heat transfer on the fire environment.