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Numerical Simulation of the Howard Street Tunnel Fire.

pdf icon Numerical Simulation of the Howard Street Tunnel Fire. (564 K)
McGrattan, K. B.; Hamins, A.

Fire Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 273-281, October 2006.


Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC


tunnels; simulation; fire models; gas temperatures; oxygen concentration; sensitivity analysis


The paper presents numerical simulations of a fire in the Howard Street Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland, following the derailment of a freight train in July, 2001. The model was validated for this application using temperature data collected during a series of fire experiments conducted in a decommissioned highway tunnel in West Virginia. The peak predicted temperatures within the Howard Street Tunnel were approximately 1,000DGC (1,800DGF) within the flaming regions, and approximately 500DGC (900DGF) averaged over a length of the tunnel equal to about four rail cars.