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Effects of Sample Orientation on Nonpiloted Ignition of Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Sheets by a Laser. Part 2. Experimental Results.


pdf icon Effects of Sample Orientation on Nonpiloted Ignition of Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Sheets by a Laser. Part 2. Experimental Results. (1164 K)
Gotoda, H.; Manzello, S. L.; Saso, Y.; Kashiwagi, T.

Combustion and Flame, Vol. 145, No. 4, 820-835, June 2006.

Keywords:

ignition; polymethyl methacrylate; lasers; experiments; buoyancy; absorption; carbon dioxide; ignition delay

Abstract:

The effect of the sample orientation angle on frontside (irradiated surface) ignition and subsequent backside (nonirradiated surface) flame appearance over thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets having thicknesses of 0.2 and 0.5 mm has been experimentally investigated, using a CO2 laser as an external radiant source in quiescent normal gravity. The sample orientation angle was varied from (ceiling configuration) to +90DG (floor configuration) at intervals of 15DG under three different laser powers of 16.0, 17.3, and 26.1 W. The shortest frontside ignition delay time was observed for the ceiling configuration and frontside ignition delay time significantly varied with increase in sample orientation angle at a laser power of 16.0 W. As the laser power was increased, frontside ignition was observed at all angles and its delay time became less dependent on the sample orientation angle. The appearance of a backside flame was achieved after the formation of an open hole (due to local consumption of the sample) by two different processes: the onset of laser induced ignition over the backside sample (backside ignition) and a flame traveling from the frontside through an open hole to the backside (backside flame). The former process was observed for a limited number of cases only around the vertical configurations The delay time for the appearance of backside flame tended to be longer for sample surfaces facing downward than for the sample surface facing upward regardless of the laser power. When the duration of laser irradiation was shortened from 10 to 4 s, as soon as the laser was shut off, the flame on the frontside immediately shrank, moved close to the sample surface, and then traveled rapidly to the backside. Therefore, the delay time of backside flame appearance (about 6 s) became longer with longer duration of laser irradiation after the onset of a frontside flame. The size of the hole (about 4 mm diameter) was large enough for the flame to travel through it, even after 4 s of laser irradiation to sample. These results indicate that the size of the hole appears to be not a critical parameter for the appearance of the backside flame.