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Active Fire Protection Systems. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster.


pdf icon Active Fire Protection Systems. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster. (3971 K)
Evans, D. D.; Peacock, R. D.; Kuligowski, E. D.; Dols, W. S.; Grosshandler, W. L.

NIST NCSTAR 1-4; 138 p. September 2005.

Keywords:

World Trade Center; high rise buildings; building collapse; disasters; fire safety; fire investigations; terrorists; terrorism; fire protection; fire alarm systems; fire protection engineering; smoke detection; smoke management; sprinklers; communication networks; hydraulic calculations; smoke purge; voice communication; fire hoses

Abstract:

The National Institute of Standards and Technology investigation of active fire protection systems in World Trade Center (WTC) 1, 2, and 7 included the design, installation, capabilities, and performance on September 11,2001, of the automatic fire sprinkler, standpipe, standpipe preconnected hoses, fire alarm, and smoke management systems. The purpose and normally expected performance of each active fire protection system in the buildings are described, as well as details about the systems installed in WTC 1, 2, and 7. Using fire protection engineering methods, the capabilities of the installed systems to respond to various fire threats from normal office fires up to and including the extraordinary challenge of the fires ignited by the aircraft impacts on September 11, 2001, were assessed. Information from the Fire Department of the City of New York records was used to document the history of significant fire events in WTC 1, 2, and 7. Findings of the investigation are presented with regard to the fire suppression, fire alarm, and smoke management systems installed on the day the buildings collapsed.