Design and Construction of Structural Systems. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center.
Design and Construction of Structural Systems. Federal
Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World
Fanella, D. A.; Derecho, A. T.; Ghosh, S. K.
NIST NCSTAR 1-1A; 159 p. September 2005.
Sponsor:National Institute of Standards and Technology,
World Trade Center; high rise buildings; building
collapse; disasters; terrorists; terrorism; building
design; building construction; structural systems; fire
safety; fire investigations; building codes; inspection;
standards; structural members; walls wind tunnels;
floors; quality control; building materials;
This report describes the provisions that were used to
design and construct World Trade Center 1, 2, and 7.
Included is a summary of the major provisions in the
codes and standards together with the loads and load
combinations that were used to design the buildings.
Methods used to proportion structural members and other
components of the buildings are also discussed, as well
as tests that were performed to support the design. his
shown that the loads that were used to design the
members were at least equal to those prescribed in the
applicable codes and standards, and that the methods
used to proportion the structural members followed the
requirements in the applicable material design standards
available at that time. Also included in this report are
the innovative systems, technologies, and materials that
were used in the buildings, and the Port Authority's
acceptance procedures for such items. Fabrication and
inspection requirements at the fabrication yard and
inspection protocol during construction are discussed.
Also covered are the details of the deviations to
contract documents that were granted by the Port
Authority, including the justifications for those
deviations. The information contained in this report is
based on documents and structural drawings that were
acquired from the following locations: (1) the offices
of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in
Newark, New Jersey, and New York City and (2) the
National Institute of Standards and Technology in
Gaithersburg, Maryland. Paper, microfilm, and electronic
versions of these documents were obtained from these
locations. Appendixes to this report include copies of