Ignition Propensity and Heat Flux Profiles of Candle Flames for Fire Investigation.
Ignition Propensity and Heat Flux Profiles of Candle
Flames for Fire Investigation.
Dillon, S. E.; Hamins, A.
Fire and Materials 2003. 8th International Conference.
Conference Papers. Proceedings. Organised by
Interscience Communications Limited. January 27-28,
2003, San Francisco, CA, 363-376 pp, 2003.
Available from:FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: Interscience
Communications Limited, West Yard House, Guildford
Grove, Greenwich London, SE10 8JT, England.
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candles; fire investigations; ignition; heat flux;
paraffins; temperature; mass loss; regression rate;
flame height; computational fluid dynamics
Common household open flame and radiant ignition sources
are the actual or suspected cause for many fires.
Because of their popular use, fire investigators have
identified candles as one of the most important of these
ignition sources. In spite of this, the ignition
potential from candle flames is not well characterized
and the properties of paraffin wax are not easily
accessible. The purpose of this ongoing research is to
identify the burning behavior and properties of common
candles in order to provide additional tools for use by
investigators. The properties of paraffin wax were
obtained from literature as well as experimentally. The
candles were burned experimentally under controlled
laboratory conditions in order to measure the mass
burning rate, regression rate, flame height, and heat
flux. Using the properties ofparaffm wax and
characteristics of the candles, numerous simulations
were performed with the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator
(FDS) to model the burning rate and heat flux profile of
a candle flame. The modeling results were then compared
with the flame height and heat flux data obtained