Protected Elevators for Egress and Access During Fires in Tall Buildings.
Protected Elevators for Egress and Access During Fires
in Tall Buildings.
Bukowski, R. W.
Strategies for Performance in the Aftermath of the World
Trade Center. CIB-CTBUH Conference on Tall Buildings.
Proceedings. Task Group on Tall Buildings: CIB TG50.
CIB Publication No. 290. October 20-23, 2003, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia, Shafii, F.; Bukowski, R.; Klemencic,
R., Editor(s)(s), 187-192 pp, 2003.
World Trade Center; high rise buildings; elevators
(lifts); emergencies; evacuation; fire departments; fire
fighters; occupants; egress
The events of September 11 have generated renewed
interest in the use of protected elevators for egress
and access. U.S. building codes contain requirements for
accessible elevators for assisted evacuation of people
with disabilities. Firefighter lifts, required in tall
buildings in some countries, are being discussed to
improve both the safety and efficiency of firefighting
operations. The desire for increased egress capacity of
tall buildings to facilitate simultaneous evacuation has
rekindled interest in elevators as a secondary means of
egress for all occupants. Elevators used for each of
these purposes share many of the same design
characteristics and the need for an extraordinary level
of safety and reliability. This paper will review the
technology, safety, and reliability issues associated
with the use of elevators during fire emergencies for
all three of these purposes and the solutions being
considered to address them. Operational procedures and
arrangements that influence system design considerations
will be suggested. An innovative system for operating
the elevators under the remote, manual control of the
fire service will be described. Important human factors
issues including communication, signage, and training
will be identified. Initial plans for a demonstration
project in a U.S. government building, as a
proof-of-concept will be presented.