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Opposed-Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Over Melting Polymers With Navier-Stokes Gas Flow.

pdf icon Opposed-Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Over Melting Polymers With Navier-Stokes Gas Flow. (730 K)
Zheng, G.; Wichman, I. S.; Benard, A.

Combustion Theory and Modelling, Vol. 6, No. 2, 317-337, June 2002.


National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

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gas flow; ignition; flame spread; polymers; numerical models; polymethyl methacrylate; mathematical models; equations; physical models; flame spread rate; flame structure


A numerical model is constructed to predict transient opposed-flow flame spread behaviour in a channel flow over a melting polymer. The transient flame is established by initially applying a high external radiation heat flux to the surface. This is followed by ignition, transition and finally steady opposed-flow flame spread. The physical phenomena under consideration include the following: gas phase: channel flow, thermal expansion and injection flow from the pyrolyzed fuel; condensed phase: heat conduction, melting, and discontinuous thermal properties (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) across the phase boundary; gas-condensed phase interface: radiation loss. There is no in-depth gas radiation absorption in the gas phase. It is necessary to solve the momentum, species, energy and continuity equations in the gas along with the energy equation(s) in the liquid and solid. Agreement is obtained between the numerical spread rate and a flame spread formula. The influence of the gas flow is explored by comparing the Navier-Stokes (NS) and Oseen (OS) models. An energy balance analysis describes the flame-spread mechanism in terms of participating heat transfer mechanisms.