Enhanced Residential Fire Detection by Combining Smoke and CO Sensors.
Enhanced Residential Fire Detection by Combining Smoke
and CO Sensors.
Cleary, T. G.; Ono, T.
NIST SP 965; February 2001.
International Conference on Automatic Fire Detection
"AUBE '01", 12th. Proceedings. National Institute of
Standards and Technology. March 25-28, 2001,
Gaithersburg, MD, Beall, K.; Grosshandler, W. L.; Luck,
H., Editor(s)(s), 346-357 pp, 2001.
Sponsor:Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington,
fire detection; fire detection systems; smoke; carbon
monoxide; sensors; algorithms; signals
This paper details an experimental program that gathered
photoelectric and ionization analog output smoke sensor,
thermal sensor, and an electrochemical CO sensor output
signals during exposure to various fire and non-fire
stimuli reproduced in the fire emulator/detector
evaluator. Three fire sources: flaming fire, smoldering
cotton (Similar to EN54 TF3) and pyrolyzing wood blocks
(similar to EN54 TF2) were emulated in the fire
emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) along with five
nuisance sources: cigarette smoke, smoke from bread
toasting, dust, high humidity/condensing water vapor,
and smoke from heated cooking oil, to represent typical
household fire and nuisance sources. Both the bread
toasting and heated cooking oil were allowed to progress
to a point well beyond that required for cooking
activities, and subsequently transitioned to hazardous
conditions that might be experienced during unattended
cooking (heavy smoke and CO production). The sensor
signals were used to develop a combined CO/smoke
detection algorithm using fuzzy logic classification
that provided early detection in the fire cases or
hazardous cooking conditions and improved discrimination
of the nuisance sources.