Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Alone and With CO2 and CF3H.
Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Alone and With CO2 and
Linteris, G. T.; Rumminger, M. D.; Babushok, V. I.
Halon Options Technical Working Conference.
Proceedings. HOTWC 2000. Sponsored by: University of
New Mexico, Fire Suppression Systems Assoc., Fire and
Safety Group, Great Lakes Chemical Corp., Halon
Alternative Research Corp., Hughes Associates, Inc.,
Kidde Fenwal, Inc., Kidde International, Modular
Protection, Inc., Next Generation Fire Suppression
Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories, Summit
Environmental Corp., Inc. and 3M Specialty Materials.
May 2-4, 2000, Albuquerque, NM, 129-140 pp, 2000.
Available from:For more information contact: Center for Global
Environmental Technologies, New Mexico Engineering
Research Institute, University of New Mexico, 901
University Blvd., SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106-4339 USA.
Fax: 505-272-7203. WEB:
halon alternatives; flame extinguishment; carbon
dioxide; premixed flames; experiments; numerical models;
Iron pentacarbony1 (Fe(CO)5) is an extraordinarily
effective flame inhibitor, up to two orders of magnitude
more efficient than CF3Br at reducing the burning
velocity of premixed flames. Recent progress has been
made in understanding its mechanism of inhibition.
However, it is flammable and highly toxic, and addition
at mole fractions above a few hundred ppm does not
result in further flame speed reduction. If other
non-toxic forms of iron exist, which are also superb
inhibitors and which maintain their action up to higher
mole fractions, they could lead to the development of
very effective fire suppressants. Previous research has
shown that iron atom in the gas phase leads to the
inhibiting iron-species intermediates, and that the main
property required for the parent molecule is that it
readily decomposes at flame temperatures to release iron
atom. A possible alternative source of Fe is ferrocene
(Fe(C5H5)2 or Fec). Ferrocene modifies the sooting
tendency of flames, is added to materials as a flame
retardant, is an antiknock agent, and is used as a
source of iron atoms for kinetic studies. It is also far
less toxic than Fe(CO)5. In this work we present the
first measurements of flame inhibition by ferrocene, and
compare its performance with that of Fe(CO)5 and CF3Br
in the same flames. We numerically model Fec's flame
inhibition using the iron-species mechanism developed
for studies of Fe(CO)5 flame inhibition. Finally, we
present results on the performance of Fec in combination
with other agents, including CO2, and CF3H. The present
research demonstrates that the efficiency of Fe(CO)5 is
not unique and that there are methods for overcoming its
loss of performance.