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Measurement of Rheological Properties of High Performance Concrete: State of the Art Report.

pdf icon Measurement of Rheological Properties of High Performance Concrete: State of the Art Report. (408 K)
Ferraris, C. F.

Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 104, No. 5, 461-478, September/October 1999.

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building technology; rheology; cement paste; mortar; concretes; rheology test methods; flow properties; suspension; workability; measurement; prediction; models


The rheology or flow properties of concrete in general and of high performance concrete (HPC) in particular, are important because many factors such as ease of placement, consolidation, durability, and strength depend on the flow properties. Concrete that is not properly consolidated may have defects like honeycombs, air voids, and aggregate segregation. Such an important performance attribute has triggered the design of numerous test methods. Generally, the flow behavior of concrete approximates that of a Bingham fluid. Therefore, at least two parameters, yield stress and viscosity, are necessary to characterize the flow. Nevertheless, most methods measure only one parameter. Predictions of the flow properties of concrete from its composition or from the properties of its components are not easy. No general model exists, although some attempts have been made. This paper gives an overview of the flow properties of a fluid or a suspension, followed by a critical review of the most commonly used concrete rheology tests. Particular attention is given to tests that could be used for HPC. Tentative definitions of terms such as workability, consistency and rheological parameters are provided. An overview of the most promising tests and models for cement paste is given.