Modeling Study of Ventilation, IAQ and Energy Impacts of Residential Mechanical Ventilation.
Modeling Study of Ventilation, IAQ and Energy Impacts of
Residential Mechanical Ventilation.
Persily, A. K.
NISTIR 6162; 85 p. May 1998.
Sponsor:Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA
Available from: National Technical Information Service
(NTIS), Technology Administration, U.S. Department of
Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
1-800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000;
Order number: PB98-148737
ventilation; building performance; exposure; indoor air
quality; predictive models; residential buildings
Based on concerns about indoor air quality and trends
towards tighter envelope construction, there has been
increasing interest in mechanical ventilation in
residential buildings. A variety of ventilation
approaches have been examined through both field
measurements and computer simulation studies. This
paper reports on a simulation study of indoor air
quality, ventilation and energy impacts of several
mechanical ventilation approaches in a single-family
residential building. The study focused on a fictitious
two-story house in Spokane, Washington and employed the
multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal model
CONTAM. The model of the house included a number of
factors related to airflow including exhaust fan and
forced-air system operation, duct leakage and weather
effects, as well as factors related to contaminant
dispersal including adsorption/desorption of water vapor
and volatile organic compounds, surface losses of
particles and nitrogen dioxide, outdoor contaminant
concentrations, and occupant activities. The
contaminants studied include carbon monoxide, carbon
dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, fine and coarse
particles, and volatile organic compounds. One-year
simulations were performed for four different
ventilation approaches: a base case of envelope
infiltration only, passive inlet vents in combination
with exhaust fan operation, an outdoor intake duct
connected to the forced-air system return balanced by
exhaust fan operation, and a continuously-operated
exhaust fan. Results discussed include whole building
air change rates, air distribution within the house,
heating and cooling loads, contaminants concentrations,
and occupant exposure to contaminants.