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Reliability and Restoration of Water Supply Systems for Fire Suppression and Drinking Following Earthquakes.


pdf icon Reliability and Restoration of Water Supply Systems for Fire Suppression and Drinking Following Earthquakes. (14964 K)
Ballantyne, D. B.; Crouse, C. B.

NIST GCR 97-730; 192 p. November 1997.

Sponsor:

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

Available from:

National Technical Information Service
Order number: PB98-122914

Keywords:

earthquakes; water supply; fire suppression; reliability; lifelines; emergency plans

Abstract:

In the Kobe, Northridge, and Loma Prieta earthquakes, the water systems providing water for fire suppression failed. In the case of Kobe, a significant investment had been made to mitigate earthquake damage. This report provides an overview of post-earthquake system reliability, and makes recommendations to enhance post-earthquake operability of domestic water systems and/or alternate water supply systems and/or enable quick restoration of service following an earthquake. This report and associated projects are the result of recommendations from the Post-Earthquake Fire and Lifeline Workshop held in Long Beach, California, January 30-31, 1995. The report includes information and procedures, developed from previous research and observations, to assess earthquake reliability of municipal water supplies focusing on water for fire suppression. The relevant information base includes experience from previous earthquakes, overall system operation, and performance of individual system components. Component and system failure mechanisms are also addressed, and mitigation approaches are identified and developed. The report also considers alternatives to enhance restoration of service following earthquakes. Alternatives include hardware improvements, system operation optimization, development of alternative water supplied, and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).