Reliability and Restoration of Water Supply Systems for Fire Suppression and Drinking Following Earthquakes.
Reliability and Restoration of Water Supply Systems for
Fire Suppression and Drinking Following Earthquakes.
Ballantyne, D. B.; Crouse, C. B.
NIST GCR 97-730; 192 p. November 1997.
Sponsor:National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Available from: National Technical Information Service
Order number: PB98-122914
earthquakes; water supply; fire suppression;
reliability; lifelines; emergency plans
In the Kobe, Northridge, and Loma Prieta earthquakes,
the water systems providing water for fire suppression
failed. In the case of Kobe, a significant investment
had been made to mitigate earthquake damage. This
report provides an overview of post-earthquake system
reliability, and makes recommendations to enhance
post-earthquake operability of domestic water systems
and/or alternate water supply systems and/or enable
quick restoration of service following an earthquake.
This report and associated projects are the result of
recommendations from the Post-Earthquake Fire and
Lifeline Workshop held in Long Beach, California,
January 30-31, 1995. The report includes information
and procedures, developed from previous research and
observations, to assess earthquake reliability of
municipal water supplies focusing on water for fire
suppression. The relevant information base includes
experience from previous earthquakes, overall system
operation, and performance of individual system
components. Component and system failure mechanisms are
also addressed, and mitigation approaches are identified
and developed. The report also considers alternatives
to enhance restoration of service following earthquakes.
Alternatives include hardware improvements, system
operation optimization, development of alternative water
supplied, and use of Geographic Information Systems