Nondestructive Testing of Concrete: History and Challenges.
Nondestructive Testing of Concrete: History and
Carino, N. J.
American Concrete Institute (ACI). Concrete Technology:
Past, Present and Future. ACI SP-144. 1994, American
Concrete Inst., Detroit, MI, 623-678 pp, 1994.
concretes; infrared spectroscopy; in-place testing;
nondestructive tests; penetration tests; probes; pullout
tests; radar; rebound hammer; statistical methods;
tests; thermography; ultrasonic tests
A brief history of nondestructive testing of hardened
concrete over the past 50 years is presented. The
contributions of V. M. Malhotra towards the development
and promotion of nondestructive testing are emphasized.
The underlying principles and inherent limitations of
the methods are reviewed, and historical highlights of
their development are presented. Test methods are
grouped into those which assess in-place strength and
those which evaluate non-strength characteristics, such
as flaws and deterioration. The paper concludes with a
discussion of the challenges for the 21st century in the
area of nondestructive testing.