Development and Demonstration of a Method to Evaluate Bio-Sampling Strategies Using Building Simulation and Sample Planning Software.
Development and Demonstration of a Method to Evaluate
Bio-Sampling Strategies Using Building Simulation and
Sample Planning Software.
Dols, W. S.; Matzke, B. D.; Sego, L. H.; Morrow, J. B.;
Nuffer, L. L.; Pulsipher, B. A.; Persily, A. K.
NIST TN 1636; NIST Technical Note 1636; 55 p. June
computer simulation; computer programs; sampling;
planning; scenarios; dispersion; classifications;
contamination; tests; building design; effectiveness
In an effort to validate and demonstrate response and
recovery sampling approaches and technologies, the U.S.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), along with
several other agencies, have simulated a bio-terrorist
release within a facility at Idaho National Laboratory
(INL) on two separate occasions in the fall of 2007 and
the fall of 2008. Because these events constitute only
two realizations of many possible scenarios, increased
understanding of sampling strategies can be obtained by
virtually examining a wide variety of release and
dispersion scenarios using computer simulations. This
research effort demonstrates the use of two software
tools, CONTAM, developed by the National Institute for
Standards and Technology (NIST), and Visual Sample Plan
(VSP), developed by Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory (PNNL). The CONTAM modeling software was used
to virtually contaminate a model of the INL test
building under various release and dissemination
scenarios as well as a range of building design and
operation parameters. The results of these numerous
CONTAM simulations were then used to investigate the
relevance and performance of various sampling strategies
using VSP. One of the fundamental outcomes of this
project was the demonstration of how CONTAM and VSP can
be used together to effectively develop sampling plans
to support the various stages of response to an airborne
chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear event.
Following such an event (or prior to an event), incident
details and the conceptual site model could be used to
create an ensemble of CONTAM simulations which model
contaminant dispersion within a building. These
predictions could then be used to identify priority area
zones within the building and then sampling designs and
strategies could be developed based on those zones.