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R-22 Replacement Status. (IN RUSSIAN)

pdf icon R-22 Replacement Status. (IN RUSSIAN) (4925 K)
Calm, J. M.; Domanski, P. A.

Journal of St. Petersburg State Academy of Refrigerating and Food Technologies, Russia, 28-36, February 2008.


refrigerants; environmental effects; thermodynamic properties; transport properties; air conditioning; hydrocarbons


Since its initial recognition in 1928 and commercialization in 1936, R-22 has been applied in systems ranging from the smallest window air conditioners to the largest chillers and heat pumps, including those for district cooling and heating. Individual equipment using this versatile refrigerant ranges from 2 kW to 33 MW (0.5 to 9,500 tons) in cooling capacity. R-22 use includes equipment with rotary-rolling-piston, reciprocating-piston, scroll, screw, and centrifugal compressors and experimentally, absorption cycles. No other refrigerant has achieved such a wide range of commercial capacities or applications.