NIST Time|NIST Home|About NIST|Contact NIST

HomeAll Years:AuthorKeywordTitle2005-2010:AuthorKeywordTitle

Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art.

pdf icon Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art. (143 K)
Ferraris, C. F.

Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 106, No. 2, 391-399, 2001.

Available from:

To download a copy of this article contact:


concretes; concrete mixers; mixer efficiency


The performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure, in turn, is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods used by the concrete industry. There are mainly two types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. The most commonly used mixers are batch mixers. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application various considerations need to be taken into account: location of the construction site (distance to a ready-mix plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost of the mixing method. However, the main consideration is the quality of the concrete produced. This quality is determined by the performance of the concrete produced and by the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will focus on a review of mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the quality of the mixing method will be examined.